The homework gap, characterized by the technological barriers and disparities students face when doing schoolwork at home, is a long-standing issue in education. It impacts millions of students nationwide, particularly black and Latino students and those who come from low-income families.
When the coronavirus pandemic hit, those pre-existing inequities were magnified for the most vulnerable students. Racial and socioeconomic achievement gaps are expected to widen because many of those students still lack essential access to devices and internet connections at home, preventing them from participating in remote learning activities largely delivered online.
School districts today continue to address that challenge as they prepare for the upcoming school year and the possibility of continuing remote or blended learning in the fall. Many have teamed up with service providers, technology companies and nonprofit organizations to find cost-effective solutions to deliver laptops, mobile devices and broadband internet to those who need them.
Yet school districts need long-term solutions rather than stop-gap measures. “With the pandemic, what we’ve seen is that the homework gap has now become an education gap,” says Evan Marwell, founder and CEO of EducationSuperHighway, a nonprofit helping bring high-speed internet broadband to all U.S. schools. “If you haven’t had internet access at home, you really haven’t been able to participate in learning and in education.”
When EducationSuperHighway started in 2012, only 10 percent of U.S. classrooms had a decent internet connection for students and teachers to use technology in the classroom, Marwell says. In 2020, that number reached 99 percent, finally laying a stronger foundation for digital learning.
But when the coronavirus pushed schools to close, his organization started getting calls from government and school officials asking questions about getting students at-home internet access for remote learning. In response, they launched the Digital Bridge K–12 initiative, a playbook for school districts and policymakers working to close the home access gap and navigating the new normal of remote learning.
EdTech had an in-depth discussion with Marwell about the homework gap’s current state, ways to bridge that gap today and in a post-pandemic world, and what school leaders need to know about connectivity as they plan for heading back to school.
DISCOVER: Learn how schools can continue remote learning for students without internet.
EDTECH: What does student connectivity look like today?
MARWELL: Our estimates are that roughly 9.6 million out of 50 million students in public schools — around 20 percent of kids in this country — don’t have internet access at home. Around 80 to 90 percent of those folks don’t have it mostly because they can’t afford it, while the last 10 percent or so don’t have it because there may not be any internet service where they live.
EDTECH: What do you think that will look like in a post-pandemic world?
MARWELL: Well, the pandemic has only made the affordability issue much worse. We expect to see that 9.6 million number actually increase as a result of the tens of millions of families losing their jobs. Those instances have primarily been concentrated among disadvantaged communities that did not have internet access in the first place. Now, even more of them probably won’t have it.
EDTECH: What can school districts do to make online remote learning possible for students?
MARWELL: One solution people are looking into, particularly for students in vulnerable populations such as those facing homelessness, are mobile hotspots. Many school districts have purchased them from wireless carriers and gave them out to students as part of their strategies for getting them online.
But when it comes to remote learning as a whole, I think we’re now moving into phase two, where school leaders are thinking about how they’ve had varying degrees of success with it, but the reality is they’re not ready. Everyone’s asking themselves how to get ready for school in the fall because almost every reopening scenario they’re looking at will need to be supported by remote learning. It may be that schools can’t open in the fall or that they’ll be using staggered schedules where kids are in the school two days a week and learning from home three days a week.
There definitely is no one-size-fits-all solution, so I would encourage them to check out Digital Bridge K–12. We have a lot of primers about the different solutions available to you, whether it’s wireline solutions, home cable modems or broadband or mobile hotspots.
MORE ON EDTECH: Become an EdTech Insider for free to access an extended version of this Q&A.
EDTECH: What exactly is Digital Bridge K–12, and how can districts use it to their advantage?
MARWELL: Digital Bridge K–12 is an effort to really close that remote learning gap as quickly as possible. What we’re doing is we’re building a playbook, a set of tools to help districts do three things: figure out which of their students don’t have internet access or a dedicated device, get those kids connected to the internet by helping them work with service providers and assist schools in device distribution and management.
EDTECH: What are other key considerations school leaders should keep in mind as they’re working on solving this issue?
MARWELL: One of the things that we’ve observed is that even in situations where schools are willing to pay for internet access or devices, they’re running into adoption issues where families just don’t take them up on their offer. One way you can overcome that is by partnering with teachers who have relationships with families, as well as trusted community-based organizations to get the word out and make sure families take advantage of those offers.
The second thing I would say is that you’ll need to make sure internet access at school is also up to snuff. If educators are teaching some kids in the classroom and some at home, those at home will need to be able to watch and listen to what their teacher is doing. It’s important to look at your internet access and do some upgrades to make sure that it doesn’t become a bottleneck and that teachers can have live video broadcasting happening in their classroom when they need it.